Wednesday, September 4, 2019

Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) :: essays research papers

Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is the integration of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators and electronics on a common silicon substrate using microfabrication techniques. MEMS are a hot area of research because they integrate sensing, analyzing and responding on the same silicon substrate hence promising realization of complete systems-on-a-chip. As MEMS are manufactured using batch fabrication techniques similar to IC technology, MEMS are expected to deliver high functionality at low prices. Current systems are limited by the capability of sensors and actuators, as these are bulkier and less reliable than the microelectronic circuit. In a MEM system the sensors act as the ‘eyes’ and gather data about the environment. The microelectronic circuit, which is the ‘brain’, processes the data and accordingly controls the mechanical systems, the ‘arms’ of the MEMS, to modify the environment suitably. The electronics on the MEMS are manufactured using IC techniques while micro machining techniques are used to produce the mechanical and electromechanical parts. MEMS Fabrication: There are number of methods to fabricate MEMS like silicon surface micromachining, silicon bulk machining, electro discharge machining, LIGA (in German, Lithographie, Galvanoformung(Electro Plating), Abformung(Injection Moulding)) .Only silicon surface micromachining is discussed here. Silicon Surface Micromachining Silicon surface micromachining uses the same equipment and processes as the electronics semiconductor industry. There are three basic building blocks in this technology, which are the ability to deposit thin films of material on a substrate, to apply a patterned mask on top of the films by photolithographic imaging, and to etch the films selectively to the mask. A MEMS process is usually a structured sequence of these operations to form actual devices. 1. Deposition Processes: One of the basic building blocks in MEMS processing is the ability to deposit thin films of material. This is achieved either through the processes like PVD or CVD. 2. Lithography: Lithography in the MEMS context is typically the transfer of a pattern to a photosensitive material by selective exposure to a radiation source such as light. In lithography for micromachining, the photosensitive material used is typically a photoresist. When resist is exposed to a radiation source of a specific a wavelength, the chemical resistance of the resist to developer solution changes. 3. Etching: If the resist is placed in a developer solution after selective exposure to a light source, it will etch away one of the two regions (exposed or unexposed). Then another layer of material is deposited and the first layer selectively etched away as shown in the figure resulting in the required MEMS.

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